Kaaba definition at Dictionary.com, a free online dictionary with pronunciation, synonyms and translation. The prophet Ibrahim (the biblical Abraham) and his son Ishmael rebuilt the Kaaba on the foundations left by Adam. This seems improbable. Wow. The structure beneath the shroud is quite plain. According to Ishaq's biography, Muhammad's solution was to have all the clan elders raise the cornerstone on a cloak, after which Muhammad set the stone into its final place with his own hands. During Muhammad's lifetime (570–632 CE), the Kaaba was considered a holy site by the local Arabs.  Circumambulation was often performed naked by men and almost naked by women. In 624 CE, Muslims believe the direction of the qibla was changed from the Masjid al-Aqsa to the Masjid al-Haram in Mecca, with the revelation of Surah 2, verse 144. Tawaf (Arabic: طَوَاف, lit. They depict it as a city grown rich on the proceeds of the spice trade. The Kaaba was the object of pre-Islamic pagan worship, threatened by the rise of Islam. The detailed story of how the Kaaba was built by Abraham and his son Ishmael peace be upon them: The sections of this article are: 1- The detailed story of how the Kaaba was built by Abraham and his son Ishmael, peace be upon them. " Armstrong further says that the Kaaba was thought to be at the center of the world, with the Gate of Heaven directly above it. Crone argues that if Mecca had been a well-known center of trade, it would have been mentioned by later authors such as Procopius, Nonnosus, or the Syrian church chroniclers writing in Syriac. The Ka’bah was not in one place and then moved, rather it was built in the place where it is now, and it has not been moved from that time. The interior walls, measuring 13 m × 9 m (43 ft × 30 ft), are clad with tiled, white marble halfway to the roof, with darker trimmings along the floor. This is the currently selected item. Another stone was the Maqam Ibrahim, the Station of Abraham, where Abraham stood for elevation while building the structure. They are also to chant the Basmala and Takbir each time they complete one revolution. , The Governor of the Makkah Province and accompanying dignitaries clean the interior of the Kaaba using cloths dipped in Zamzam water scented with Oud perfume. The Kaaba. Allah in his infinite Mercy ordained a similar place on earth and Prophet Adam was the first to build this place. In Samaritan literature, the Samaritan Book of the Secrets of Moses (Asatir) claims that Ishmael and his eldest son Nebaioth built the Kaaba as well as the city of Mecca. , The Qur'an contains several verses regarding the origin of the Kaaba. There's a rather bizarre Islamic tradition that Alexander the Great visited the Arabian peninsula, and more specifically the Kaa'ba; i've only recently encountered this, and I was wondering if you could direct me towards how this tradition seems to have come about; the implication was that a) the kaa'ba existed in c.323 BC, b) that Alexander visited Arabia, c) that at the time it was the centre of a monotheistic religion. The Kaaba is the center of the holiest place of worship in Islam, the Sacred Mosque of Mecca, Al Masjid Al-Haram in Saudi Arabia.Its name means, “the cube” in Arabic, as it is a cube-shaped stone structure built in the middle of the Sacred Mosque. The fall of the city and the death of 'Abdullah ibn al-Zubayr allowed the Umayyads under 'Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan to finally reunite all the Islamic possessions and end the long civil war. Many Muslim and academic historians stress the power and importance of the pre-Islamic Mecca. Kaaba in Mecca, demonstrating that Abraham could not have built it, even if the city of Mecca had existed before the 4th century AD. He is Independent and free of any kind of associate having no father, mother or son as is promulgated by the Roman Catholic Church and by … Thanks for the learningwords! To incorporate already established religious rituals and traditions into his "new" religion would have provided a comfortable transition for those committed to the old ways, while ensuring the local elites remained in an area shielded from warfare and where pilgrims would continue to come and spend money. ( Jasmin Merdan /Adobe Stock) There, they gather around the Ka’aba, often written simply as Kaaba, a cubic-shaped building at the center of Islam’s most sacred m… So, when Muhammad and his young Islamic community gained control of Mecca it was very important to them to destroy the idols being held in the Kaaba and (in their minds) return it to its proper use; which was to serve as a tribute to Allah/God. 'The Cube', Arabic pronunciation: [kaʕ.bah]), also spelled Ka'bah or Kabah, sometimes referred to as al-Kaʿbah al-Musharrafah (Arabic: ٱلْكَعْبَة ٱلْمُشَرَّفَة, romanized: al-Kaʿbah al-Musharrafah, lit. ['Ata'] said: "Yes, there was set in it a picture of Maryam adorned (muzawwaqan); in her lap, her son Isa sat adorned. , Narrated Abdullah: When the Prophet entered Mecca on the day of the conquest, there were 360 idols around the Kaaba. If we can say, for instance, that the Meccan economy was thriving because of its role as a center of religion, and/or if we can say that there were Arabs in the region who were committed to the ceremonies and religious practices that already existed in Mecca, it could have been a very shrewd political move for Muhammad. It is the focal point of the city of Makka, or Mecca..  The others also allegedly had counterparts of the Black Stone. 'House of God') and is the qibla (Arabic: قِبْلَة, direction of prayer) for Muslims around the world when performing salah. In 693 CE, 'Abd al-Malik had the remnants of al-Zubayr's Kaaba razed, and rebuilt it on the foundations set by the Quraysh. The prophet Muhammad was apparently part of the priesthood of the Kaaba at one time. The Kaaba is a cuboid-shaped structure made of stones. That is interesting. Another theory says that it holds astrological significance, perhaps like the pyramids at Giza. , The literal meaning of the word Ka'bah (Arabic: كعبة) is cube.. [Quran 2:144] In 628 CE, Muhammad led a group of Muslims towards Mecca with the intention of performing the Umrah, but was prevented from doing so by the Quraysh. There is a meteorite that is still housed in the Kaaba and revered as a holy object. For other uses, see, Every year, from the eighth to the twelfth day of. Mecca is therefore recorded as having become a holy place among the Arabs, a sanctuary (Arabic: haram) where the constant in-fighting and blood feuds that categorized ancient and late antique Arabia were not permitted to occur. Indeed no Muslim will deny that there may have been as many as 360 stone idols located in and around the Kaaba in Mohammed's day. 'going about') is one of the Islamic rituals of pilgrimage and is compulsory during both the Hajj and Umrah. The structure was severely damaged by a fire on 3 Rabi' I 64 AH or Sunday, 31 October 683 CE, during the first siege of Mecca in the war between the Umayyads and 'Abdullah ibn al-Zubayr, an early Muslim who ruled Mecca for many years between the death of ʿAli and the consolidation of power by the Umayyads.  The pair of ram's horns were said to have belonged to the ram sacrificed by Ibrahim in place of his son Ishmael as held by Islamic tradition. The building is opened biannually for the ceremony of "The Cleaning of the Sacred Kaaba" (Arabic: تنظيف الكعبة المشرفة, romanized: Tanzif al-Ka'bat al-Musharrafah, lit. , Based on an earlier report by Agatharchides of Cnidus, Diodorus Siculus mentions a temple along the Red Sea coast, "which is very holy and exceedingly revered by all Arabians". " In Meccan Trade and the Rise of Islam, Patricia Crone argues that the identification of Macoraba with Mecca is false and that Macoraba was a town in southern Arabia in what was then known as Arabia Felix. Setting aside any tribal feuds, they would worship their gods in the Kaaba and trade with each other in the city. A statue of Hubal(the principal idol of Mecca) and statues of other pagan deities are known to have been placed in or around the Kaaba.  Alfred Guillaume, in his translation of the Ibn Ishaq's seerah, says that the Kaaba itself might be referred to in the feminine form. ", In her book Islam: A Short History, Karen Armstrong asserts that the Kaaba was officially dedicated to Hubal, a Nabatean deity, and contained 360 idols which probably represented the days of the year. Preparations for the washing start a day before the agreed date, with the mixing of Zamzam water with several luxurious perfumes including Tayef rose, 'oud and musk. In the Qur'an, the Ka'bah is also mentioned by the following names: The masjid surrounding the Kaaba is called al-Masjid al-Haram ("The Sacred Mosque"). Hawting, G.R. Pilgrims go around the Kaaba (the most sacred site in Islam) seven times in a counterclockwise direction; the first three at a hurried pace on the outer part of the Mataaf and the latter four times closer to the Kaaba at a leisurely pace. Usually, the entire process is completed in two hours. The Prophet started striking them with a stick he had in his hand and was saying, "Truth has come and Falsehood has vanished..." (Qur'an 17:81)", Al-Azraqi further conveys how Muhammad, after he entered the Kaaba on the day on the conquest, ordered all the pictures erased except that of Maryam, Shihab (said) that the Prophet (peace be upon him) entered the Kaaba on the day of the conquest, and in it was a picture of the angels (mala'ika), among others, and he saw a picture of Ibrahim and he said: "May Allah kill those representing him as a venerable old man casting arrows in divination (shaykhan yastaqsim bil-azlam)."  It is the most sacred site in Islam. It was said that it was the angels, or Adam (peace be upon him), or Ibraaheem (peace be … The Kaaba is a large cube-shaped building inside the mosque known as al-Masjid al-Haram in Mecca, Saudi Arabia.Muslims believe that the Kaaba was built by the command of God.  Members of the tribe greet visitors to the inside of the Kaaba on the occasion of the cleaning ceremony.  Muhammad's Isra' is said to have taken him from the Kaaba to the Masjid al-Aqsa and heavenwards from there. Aside from Islamic tradition, we do know that Mecca was a site of Arabian religion prior to the coming of Islam, and work has been done to reconstruct what Arab life would have been like in the region prior to Muhammad's revelation. The truth is that no one knows who built the Kaaba. Several idols were placed within the Kaaba representing deities of different aspects of nature and different tribes. Islamic tradition holds that Adam built the first structure on earth in the spot the Kaaba now occupies.  A hadith in Sahih al-Bukhari states that the Kaaba was the first masjid on Earth, and the second was the Temple in Jerusalem. It took its present name from what it had been, since the memory of the place was preserved with the generations of their race.  It is considered by Muslims to be the Bayt Allah (Arabic: بَيْت ٱللَّٰه, lit.  He performed the Hajj in 632 CE called the Hujjat ul-Wada' ("Farewell Pilgrimage") since Muhammad prophesied his impending death on this event.. Filmed before and during the Covid-19 outbreak The Ask Project is made possible by donations from viewers like you. Several rituals were adopted in the pilgrimage including doing naked circumambulation. The Kaaba’s original architecture has remained the same for centuries. The Bāb ut-Tawbah—on the right wall (right of the entrance) opens to an enclosed staircase that leads to a hatch, which itself opens to the roof.  Various sculptures and paintings were held inside the Kaaba. When Muslims travel to Mecca to perform the hajj they reenact important moments of their Abraham story. The role of Adam in construction Kaaba is uncertain in Hadiths; the authentic history about the construction of Kaaba is as follows. As has already been posted on here, Islamic tradition - and the tradition at the center of the Haaj - states that it was a construction of the Prophet Abraham, who had traveled there to settle down with Hagar and Ishmael, although some stories even suggest it was a home for earlier Prophets, too. It is located inside the Grand Mosque in Makkah (Mecca) Saudi Arabia. 'Abdullah rebuilt it to include the hatīm. The Kaaba has been destroyed, damaged, and subsequently rebuilt several times since. His first action was to remove statues and images from the Kaaba. If possible, Muslims are to kiss or touch it, but this is often not possible because of the large crowds. This has included combat in the second Islamic Civil war between the Caliph Abd al-Malik b. Marwan and another claimant, Abd Allah b. al-Zubayr where the structure was either completely reconstructed or damaged depending on reports, a raid by the Qarmatians in the tenth century that saw the famed "black stone" stolen from Mecca temporarily, and subsequent damage a number of times in the Ottoman period. Muhammad was driven out of Mecca in 620 C.E. The Kaaba is depicted on the reverse of 500 Saudi riyal, and the 2000 Iranian rial banknotes.. The name he gives it allows us to identify it as a South Arabian foundation created around a sanctuary. Islam prohibits the worship of the black stone, Kaaba, and/or any other object beside Allah Almighty! Eventually, idol worshippers begun using the Kaaba to store their pagan idols. It attracts almost 2 million people annually. There is no simple answer to this question, I'm afraid.  The Kaaba's appearance has not changed since then. During Muhammad’s early ministry, the Kaaba was the qiblah, or direction of prayer, for the Muslim community. I realise it is likely that much of this is about as accurate as the Iliad and the Odyssey, but it's something I've never seen before and find really fascinating. Muslims praying around the Ka'aba in Mecca, Saudi Arabia. An excellent source for some of the building work that has taken place around the Ka'ba and the Mosque which was built to surround it - the Masjid al-Haram - can be found here. It states that the Kaaba was the first House of Worship for mankind, and that it was built by Ibrahim and Ismail on Allah's instructions.. Another name of Holy Kaaba … although some stories even suggest it was a home for earlier Prophets, too. Saudi archeologist Mohammed Almaghthawi discovered some rock inscriptions mentioning the Masjid Al Haram and the Kaaba, dating back to the first and second centuries of Islam. Various sculptures and paintings were held inside the Kaaba. Learn kaaba with free interactive flashcards. The Kaaba was originally built by the Prophet Adam (peace be upon him) (it was also said that before Adam it was built by the Malaaika!) Once every lunar year, the Bedouin tribes would make a pilgrimage to Mecca. Hajj pilgrims are generally advised to "make ṭawāf" at least twice – once as part of the Hajj, and again before leaving Mecca.. The keys to the Kaaba are held by the Banī Shaybah (Arabic: بني شيبة) tribe, an honor bestowed upon them by Muhammad. (Princeton University Press, 2011), 45–62.  Inside the Kaaba, the floor is made of marble and limestone. It stands on the site of a pre-Islamic shrine said to have been built by Abraham, and a sacred Black Stone is set in its south-eastern corner. The Kaaba is the holiest place in Islam. Per a hypothesis by Uri Rubin and Christian Robin, Hubal was only venerated by Quraysh and the Kaaba was first dedicated to Allah, a supreme god of individuals belonging to different tribes, while the pantheon of the gods of Quraysh was installed in Kaaba after they conquered Mecca a century before Muhammad's time. This short Nestorian (Christian origin) chronicle written no later than the 660s CE covers the history up to the Arab conquest and also gives an interesting note on Arabian geography. 'Honored Ka'bah'), is a building at the center of Islam's most important mosque, the Masjid al-Haram in Mecca, Saudi Arabia. Robert Hoyland's Arabia and the Arabs is an excellent source of information for the pre-Islamic religious traditions if you want to know more. Indeed, it was no new thing for the Arabs to worship there, but goes back to antiquity, to their early days, in that they show honor to the father of the head of their people.". However, the most significant increase in their numbers is during Ramadan and the hajj, when millions of pilgrims gather for tawaf. This is the second dateable text mentioning the Kaaba, first being some verses from the Quran. As far as I understand it, the Kaaba is sacred to Islam because it was sacred to Muhammad (meaning, it was already considered an Arab holy site by the late 6th century). Tradition holds that it was originally a simple unroofed rectangular structure. During the Hajj of 930 CE, the Shi'ite Qarmatians attacked Mecca under Abu Tahir al-Jannabi, defiled the Zamzam Well with the bodies of pilgrims and stole the Black Stone, taking it to the oasis in Eastern Arabia known as al-Aḥsāʾ, where it remained until the Abbasids ransomed it in 952 CE. Choose from 31 different sets of kaaba flashcards on Quizlet. " According to historian Eduard Glaser, the name "Kaaba" may have been related to the southern Arabian or Ethiopian word "mikrab", signifying a temple. There were painti… , al-Azraqi provides the following narrative on the authority of his grandfather:, I have heard that there was set up in al-Bayt (referring to the Kaaba) a picture (Arabic: تمثال, romanized: Timthal, lit. Prior to Islam throughout the Arabian Peninsula, the Kaaba was a holy site for the various Bedouin tribes of the area.  There were paintings of idols decorating the walls. Millions of Muslims travel to Mecca, Saudi Arabia every year and in a single day, Mecca is capable of attracting over two million Muslim followers for the annual hajj pilgrimage, considered one of the five pillars of Islam . Taha Hussein said, “This is something really clear because the Kaaba was a new structure that was built before Islam existed. " The Asatir book was likely compiled in the 10th century CE, though Moses Gaster suggested in 1927 that it was written no later than the second half of the 3rd century BCE. In 930 the Black Stone itself was carried away by an extreme Shiʿi sect known as the Qarmatians and held almost 20 years for ransom. , Imoti contends that there were numerous such Kaaba sanctuaries in Arabia at one time, but this was the only one built of stone. The site has been the location of pilgrimage ever since, although that pilgrimage has changed and developed over the near 1400 years since its establishment, of course! The Kaaba (Arabic: ٱلْكَعْبَة, romanized: al-Kaʿbah, lit. According to Islamic tradition, the Kaaba was built by Abraham (yes, the same Abraham from the Bible) as a holy site to God/Allah thousands of years before Muhammad was born. Mother Abiona or Amtelai the daughter of Karnebo, Slayers of Saleh's she-camel (Qaddar ibn Salif and Musda' ibn Dahr). The floor of the interior stands about 2.2 m (7 ft 3 in) above the ground area where tawaf is performed.  Ibn Ishaq says that the timber for the reconstruction of the Kaaba came from a Greek ship that had been wrecked on the Red Sea coast at Shu'aybah and that the work was undertaken by a Coptic carpenter called Baqum. A similar view is printed on the obverse side of 500-riyal (approximately 133 USD) notes in Saudi Arabia. You are correct that tradition holds that he built it, but there's no reason to take that remotely seriously as a historical answer (I'm assuming that's what OP is looking for when he asks who "really built" it. The Kaaba, the House of Allah which is situated in the centre of Mecca, symbolises the Unity of God Who alone is worthy of worship. The site may not work properly if you don't, If you do not update your browser, we suggest you visit, Press J to jump to the feed. Does the Kaaba actually have anything to do with Abraham or was that just another thing Muhammad made up? One of the most convincing arguments I've heard is that there was a well in Mecca called "Zamzam" which was a holy site before the Kaaba was built. Three pillars (some erroneously report two) stand inside the Kaaba, with a small altar or table set between one and the other two. Some Muslim experts do reject the assumption that Ibrahim and Ismail built the Kaaba.  The iconography in the Kaaba also included paintings of other prophets and angels. Since he lived in tents, he built that place for the worship of God and for the offering of sacrifices. Hajj. It argues that the Arabs of the region had had their faith corrupted and had become polytheists, and the home of Abraham that had been built in Mecca - the Ka'ba - had become a shrine of veneration to the numerous Gods of the Arabian milieu. This combat-free zone allowed Mecca to thrive not only as a place of pilgrimage, but also as a trading center.. Circling the Kaaba seven times counterclockwise, known as Tawaf (Arabic: طواف, romanized: tawaaf), is an obligatory rite for the completion of the Hajj and Umrah pilgrimages. The Five Pillars of Islam. Islam. Muhammad took part in the reconstruction of the Kaaba after its structure was damaged due to floods around 600 CE. Ibn Kathir regarded this tradition as weak and preferred instead the narration by Ali ibn Abi Talib that although several other temples might have preceded the Kaaba, it was the first Bayt Allah ("House of God"), dedicated solely to Him, built by His instruction, and sanctified and blessed by Him, as stated in Quran 22:26–29. Introduction to mosque architecture. That Mecca was a holy site for quite some time before the coming of Islam is also known, and Islamic tradition itself recognizes this, too. The section covering the geography starts with a speculation about the origin of the Muslim sanctuary in Arabia: "Regarding the K'bta (Kaaba) of Abraham, we have been unable to discover what it is except that, because the blessed Abraham grew rich in property and wanted to get away from the envy of the Canaanites, he chose to live in the distant and spacious parts of the desert. Timur Kuran, “Commercial Life under Islamic Rule,” in The Long Divergence : How Islamic Law Held Back the Middle East. The Kaaba and the Mataaf are surrounded by pilgrims every day of the Islamic year, except the 9th of Dhu al-Hijjah, known as the Day of Arafah, on which the cloth covering the structure, known as the Kiswah (Arabic: كسوة, romanized: Kiswah, lit. After the centuries after Prophet Adam (PBUH) built the Kaaba, two people came across the desert to Makkah Valley with a child. Verily, the first House (of worship) appointed for mankind was that at Bakkah (Makkah), full of blessing, and a guidance for mankind. This allowed trade to thrive, and it is argued that the worship of the many Arabian deities brought wealth to Mecca and the region. ", And remember Ibrahim and Ismail raised the foundations of the House (With this prayer): "Our Lord! After the construction was complete, God enjoined the descendants of Ishmael to perform an annual pilgrimage: the Hajj and the Korban, sacrifice of cattle. When Muslims travel to Mecca to perform the hajj they reenact important moments of their Abraham story. However, again according to Islamic teaching, the monotheistic and correct religion was lost to the Arabic peninsula.  The iconography portrayed a seated Maryam with her child on her lap. Introduction to mosque architecture. The Kaaba is built from grey granite and each corner points to one of the four points of the compass. One of them reads as follows: "God suffices and wrote Maysara bin Ibrahim Servant of the Kaaba (Khadim al-Kaaba).".  To be in a state of Wudu (ablution) is mandatory while performing tawaf as it is considered to be a form of worship ('ibadah).  and Bayt Allah al-Haram (Arabic: بيت الله الحرام, romanized: Bayt Allah il-Haram, lit. The vicinity of the shrine was also made a sanctuary where bloodshed and war were forbidden. Since this is AskHistorians, it's probably worth mentioning that there is no evidence that Abraham ever existed. He did so on the basis of a tradition (found in several hadith collections) that the hatīm was a remnant of the foundations of the Abrahamic Kaaba, and that Muhammad himself had wished to rebuild it so as to include it. Once a year, tribes from all around the Arabian Peninsula, whether Christian or pagan, would converge on Mecca to perform the Hajj pilgrimage, marking the widespread conviction that Allah was the same deity worshipped by monotheists. ", Ibn Kathir, in his famous exegesis (tafsir) of the Quran, mentions two interpretations among the Muslims on the origin of the Kaaba. ; Kaʿba. Crone believes that this is an exaggeration and that Mecca may only have been an outpost for trading with nomads for leather, cloth, and camel butter. Please read the rules before participating, as we remove all comments which break the rules.  The circling is believed to demonstrate the unity of the believers in the worship of the One God, as they move in harmony together around the Kaaba, while supplicating to God. The Kaaba is believed by Muslims to have been rebuilt several times throughout history, most famously by Ibrahim (Abraham) and his son Ismail (Ishmael), when he returned to the valley of Mecca several years after leaving his wife Hajar (Hagar) and Ismail there upon Allah's command. Rock inscriptions from early Islam: Documentary evidence for the Kaaba. Undefined decorations, money and a pair of ram's horns were recorded to be inside the Kaaba,. Looking at pictures now it's very obvious that it's a covering, but I always assumed that it (the facade at least) was made of black marble. I've mentioned this in a previous post, but the Ka'ba has actually been raided, damaged, repaired, and significantly rebuilt many times just over the 1400 years since Islam's establishment. The wall directly adjacent to the entrance of the Kaaba has six tablets inlaid with inscriptions, and there are several more tablets along the other walls.
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